Qualified PersonS

Keith Laskowski (MSc), Sandstorm’s Vice President, Geology is a Qualified Professional (#01221QP) of the Mining and Metallurgical Society of America and a Qualified Person as defined by Canadian National Instrument 43-101. He has reviewed and approved the technical information in this document.

A

Agi Dagi

NI-43-101 Technical Report: Feasibility Study on the Agi Dagi Project and Preliminary Economic Assessment on the Camyurt Project, Canakkale Province, Türkiye; February 22, 2017; Cormier, A. et al., JDS Energy & Mining Inc.

Altan Nar

NI-43-101 Technical Report: Altan Nar Gold Project Mineral Resource Technical Report, Bayankhongor Aimag, Southwest Mongolia; June 21, 2018; Clark, J. et al., RPMGlobal Asia Limited

ALTO PARANÁ

NI-43-101 Technical Report: Resource Estimate on Alto Parana Project, Alto Parana, Paraguay: August 11, 2017; Kuhn, M. et al., Minerals Advisory Group, LLC

ANGILAK

NI-43-101 Technical Report: Technical Report and Resource Update for the Angilak Property, Kivalliq Region, Nunavut, Canada; March 1, 2013; Dufresne, M. et al., APEX Geoscience Ltd.

ANTAMINA

Resources & Reserves Report; December 31, 2022; Glencore plc

AURIZONA

NI-43-101 Technical Report: Aurizona Gold Mine Expansion Pre-feasibility Study, Maranhão, Brazil; September 20, 2021; Zurowski, G. et al., AGP Mining Consultants Inc.

NI-43-101 Technical Report: Feasibility Study on the Aurizona Gold Mine Project, Maranhao, Brazil; July 10, 2017; Lincoln, N. et al., Lycopodium Minerals Canada Ltd.

NI-43-101 Technical Report: Pre-Feasibility Study on Aurizona Mine Project (Amended), Maranhao, Brazil; November 16, 2016; Evans, D. et al., Lycopodium Minerals Canada Ltd.

B

BARRY

NI-43-101 Technical Report: Gladiator and Moroy Deposits and the Bachelor Mine and Preliminary Economic Assessment on the Barry Deposit, Quebec, Canada; June 1, 2022; Bhundhoo, V. et al.,  SLR Consulting (Canada) Ltd.

BAYAN KHUNDII

NI-43-101 Technical Report: Bayan Khundii Gold Project Feasibility Study Update, Bayankhongor Province, Mongolia; August 15, 2023; Lawrence, J. et al, O2 Mining and Engineering Services

BLACK FOX

NI-43-101 Technical Report: Preliminary Economic Assessment of the Fox Complex, Ontario, Canada; January 26, 2022; Bagnell, W. et al., Wood Canada Limited

BLENDE

NI-43-101 Technical Report: Blende Project, Yukon, Canada; June 29, 2021; Bird, S. et al., Moose Mountain Technical Services

BLYVOOR

NI-43-101 Technical Report: Blyvoor Gold Mine, Gauteng, South Africa; March 1, 2021; Engelmann, U. et al., Minxcon (Pty) Ltd.

BONIKRO

NI-43-101 Technical Report: Bonikro Gold Project, Goh-Djiboua, Côte d’Ivoire; July 5, 2023; Earl, A. et al., Datamine Australia Pty Ltd. (Snowden Optiro)

BRACEMAC-MCLEOD

NI-43-101 Technical Report and Feasibility Study for the Bracemac-McLeod Project, Matagami Area, Quebec. GENIVAR report to Xstrata Zinc Canada; September 21, 2010; GENIVAR

C

CADILLAC BREAK

NI-43-101 Technical Report: Orenada Property, Province of Quebec, Canada; August 14, 2009; Beauregard, A. et al., Geologica Groupe-Conseil Inc.

CASERONES

NI-43-101 Technical Report: Caserones Mining Operation, Atacama Region, Chile; December 31, 2022; Daigle, P. et al; AGP Mining Consultants Inc.

CERRO MORO

NI-43-101 Technical Report: Cerro Moro Gold-Silver Mine, Santa Cruz Province, Argentina; December 31,2021; de Souza Soares, E. et al; Yamana Gold Inc.

Pan American Silver Reports Mineral Reserves and Resources as at June 30, 2023 [News Release]; August 24, 2023; Pan American Silver Corp.

CHAPADA

NI-43-101 Technical Report: Chapada Mine, Goiás State, Brazil; June 30, 2019; Moore, C. et al., Roscoe Postle Associates Inc.

Lundin Mining Corp. Annual Information Form for the year ended December 31, 2022 [AIF]; February 22, 2023; Lundin Mining Corp.

COPPER MOUNTAIN

NI-43-101 Technical Report: Amended Resources and Reserves of the Copper Mountain Mine, Princeton, British Columbia; August 12, 2016; Holbek, P. et al., Copper Mountain Mining Corp.

CORANI

NI-43-101 Technical Report: Corani Project, Puno, Peru; December 17, 2019; Lane, G.S. et al., Ausenco Services Pty Ltd.

CORINGA

NI-43-101 Technical Report: Preliminary Economic Assessment for the Coringa Project, Pará State, North Central, Brazil; September 6, 2019; Gunesch, K. et al., Global Resource Engineering Ltd.

NI-43-101 Technical Report: Feasibility Study Coringa Gold Project, Brazil; September 8, 2017; Prenn, N. et al., MTD Project Management Professionals, Inc.

COSALÁ

Americas Gold and Silver Corporation Annual Information Form for the Financial Year Ended December 31, 2022 [AIF]; March 30, 2023; Americas Gold and Silver Corporation.

NI-43-101 Technical Report: The San Rafael Mine and Preliminary Feasibility Study on the EC120 Project, Sinaloa, Mexico; April 3, 2019; Dell, D. et al., Americas Silver Corporation.

D

DIAVIK

Rio Tinto plc Annual Report on Form 20-F 2021; February 25, 2022; Rio Tinto plc

NI-43-101 Technical Report: Diavik Diamond Mine, Northwest Territories, Canada; March 27, 2017; Yip, C.G. et al., Diavik Diamond Mines Inc.

DON NICOLAS

NI-43-101 Technical Report: Minera Don Nicolás Gold Project, Santa Cruz, Argentina; August 31, 2020; Arseneau, G., SRK Consulting (Canada) Inc.

NI-43-101 Technical Report: Don Nicolas Gold Project, Santa Cruz, Argentina; February 14, 2012; Grant, C. et al., Tetra Tech Company

E

EMIGRANT

NI-43-101 Technical Report: 1.5% Production Royalty Held on the Emigrant Project, Elko County, Nevada, USA; September 10, 2012; Lewis, W. et al., Micon International Limited

F

FORRESTANIA

Activity Report for the Period Ending 31 March 2022 [News Release], April 29, 2022; Western Areas Ltd.

FRUTA DEL NORTE

NI-43-101 Technical Report: Fruta del Norte Mine, Ecuador; December 31, 2022; El-Rassi, D. et al., SLR Consulting Limited

G

GALENA

Americas Gold and Silver Corporation Annual Information Form for the Financial Year Ended December 31, 2022 [AIF]; March 30, 2023; Americas Gold and Silver Corporation

NI-43-101 Technical Report: The Galena Complex, Idaho, USA; December 23, 2016; Atkinson, J.R. et al., Americas Silver Corporation

GCWIHABA

NI-43-101 Technical Report: Mineral Resource Estimate for the Xaudum Iron Project (Block 1), Republic of Botswana; August 29, 2014; Baker, H. et al., SRK Consulting (UK) Limited

GLADIATOR

NI-43-101 Technical Report: Gladiator, Barry, and Moroy Deposits, and Bachelor Mine, Quebec, Canada; August 5, 2021; Wilson, V. et al., SLR Consulting (Canada) Ltd.

GOLD BAR (CABIN CREEK)

S-K 1300 Technical Report Summary: Feasibility Study for the Gold Bar Project, Eureka County, Nevada; March 4, 2022; M3 Engineering & Technology Corp., Gingerquill Consulting LLC, Independent Mining Consultants, Inc., Forte Dynamics, and McEwen Mining Inc.

GREENSTONE

NI-43-101 Technical Report: Hardrock Project, Ontario, Canada; December 16, 2020; Gignac, L.P. et al.; G Mining Services Inc.

GUALCAMAYO

Mineros S.A. Annual Information Form for the year ended December 31, 2022 [AIF]; March 30, 2023; Mineros S.A.

NI-43-101 Technical Report: Gualcamayo Project, San Juan and Rioja Provinces, Argentina; June 30, 2021; Horan, S. et al., SLR Consulting (Canada) Ltd.

GUM CREEK

19% Increase in Resources at Gum Creek Gold Project [News Release]; May 15, 2023; Horizon Gold Limited

Gum Creek Gold Project Free Milling Scoping Study [News Release]; March 18, 2016; Panoramic Resources

H

HERUGA

NI-43-101 Technical Report: Entrée/Oyu Tolgoi Joint Venture Project, Mongolia; October 8, 2021; Hanson, K. et al., Wood Canada Limited

HM CLAIM

NI-43-101 Technical Report: Macassa Property, Ontario, Canada; December 31, 2018; Harvey, M.P. et al., Kirkland Lake Gold Ltd.

HOD MADEN

NI-43-101 Technical Report: Feasibility Study for the Hod Maden Project, Artvin Province, Türkiye; February 28, 2021; Allen, P. et al., GR Engineering Services Limited

HORNE 5

NI-43-101 Technical Report: Feasibility Study for Horne 5 Gold Project, Quebec, Canada; March 18, 2021; Hardie, C. et al., BBA Inc.

HOUNDÉ

Endeavour Achieves Record Annual Discoveries with Addition of 3.0 Moz of M&I and 0.9 Moz of Inferred Resources [News Release]; January 17, 2022; Endeavour Mining Corp.

Endeavour Reports Strong FY-2022 Results [News Release]; March 9, 2023; Endeavour Mining Corp.

NI-43-101 Technical Report: Houndé Gold Mine, Republic of Burkina Faso; December 31, 2019; Ramazan, S. et al., Endeavour Mining Corp.

HUGO NORTH EXTENSION

NI-43-101 Technical Report: Entrée/Oyu Tolgoi Joint Venture Project, Mongolia; October 8, 2021; Hanson, K. et al., Wood Canada Limited

I

IVRINDI

Scoping Study of the Karadere Gold Project, Burhaniye, Türkiye; July 29, 2015; Defilippi, C. et al., Kappes, Cassiday & Associates and DAMA Engineering Co.

K

KARMA

NI-43-101 Technical Report: Updated Feasibility Study (GGI, GGII, Kao, Rambo & Nami Deposits) and a Preliminary Economic Assessment (North Kao Deposit) for the Karma Gold Project, Burkina Faso, West Africa; August 10, 2014; Puritch, E. et al., P&E Mining Consultants Inc.

Endeavour Mining Corp. Annual Information Form for the Financial Year Ended December 31, 2020 [AIF]; March 31, 2021; Endeavour Mining Corp.

KENO HILL

NI-43-101 Technical Report: Prefeasibility Study of the Keno Hill Silver District Project, Yukon Territory, Canada: March 28, 2019; Churcher, A. et al., Mining Plus Canada Consulting Limited

KIRAZLI

NI-43-101 Technical Report: Feasibility Study on the Kirazli Project, Canakkale Province, Türkiye; February 15, 2017; Cormier, A. et al., JDS Energy & Mining Inc.

L

LAS CALANDRIAS

NI-43-101 Technical Report: Las Calandrias Project, Santa Cruz Province, Argentina; February 17, 2021; Daigle, P. et al., AGP Mining Consultants Inc.

LOBO-MARTE

Kinross Gold Corporation Annual Information Form for the year ended December 31, 2021 [AIF]; March 31, 2022; Kinross Gold Corporation

LONG LAKE

NI-43-101 Technical Report: Long Lake Project, Newfoundland, Canada; March 13, 2012; Keller, G.D. et al., SRK Consulting (Canada) Inc.

M

MARA (AGUA RICA)

Investor Day [Presentation], April 5, 2022, Yamana Gold Inc.

Independent Engineering Review of the Agua Rica Project; December 9, 2014; Kehmeier, R. et al., RungePincockMinarco

MEL

NI-43-101 Technical Report: Mel Zinc-Lead-Barite Property, Watson Lake Mining District Southeast Yukon: March 20, 2017; King, H. et al., H. Leo King & Associates Inc. and Giroux Consultants Ltd.

MERCEDES

NI-43-101 Technical Report: Mercedes Gold-Silver Mine, Sonora, Mexico; December 31, 2021; Hardie, C. et al., BBA Engineering Inc.

MONTAGNE D’OR

NI-43-101 Technical Report: Bankable Feasibility Study Montagne d’Or Project, French Guiana; March 6, 2017; Stryhas, B. et al., SRK Consulting (U.S.), Inc.

MOROY

NI-43-101 Technical Report: Gladiator, Barry, and Moroy Deposits, and Bachelor Mine, Quebec, Canada; August 5, 2021; Wilson, V. et al., SLR Consulting (Canada) Ltd.

MOSS

NI-43-101 Technical Report: Mineral Resource, Mineral Reserve, and Mine Plan for the Moss Mine, Arizona, USA; July 1, 2021; Richey, J.R. et al., Independent Mining Consultants Inc.

MT. HAMILTON

NI-43-101 Technical Report: Feasibility Study Mt. Hamilton Gold and Silver Project Centennial Deposit and Seligman Deposit, White Pine County, Nevada; August 14, 2014; SRK Consulting (U.S.), Inc.

MWS

Harmony Gold Mining Company Ltd. FY22 Operational Review and FY23 Guidance; August 30, 2022; Harmony Gold Mining Company Ltd.

NI-43-101 Technical Report: Mine Waste Solutions Tailings Recovery Project, North West Province, South Africa; January 1, 2010; Muller, C. et al., Minxcon

N

NORTH TELFER

Minyari Dome Project Gold Resource Increases 250% to 1.8 Million Oz of Gold [News Release], May 2, 2022; Antipa Minerals Limited

Strong Minyari Dome Scoping Study Outcomes [News Release]; August 31, 2022; Antipa Minerals Limited

NORTH TIMMINS

NI-43-101 Technical Report: Prefeasibility Study Bradshaw Gold Deposit, Timmins, Ontario; September 15, 2016; Stantec – Mining

O

OMAI

NI-43-101 Technical Report: Updated Mineral Resource Estimate of the Omai Gold Property, Potaro Mining District No. 2, Guyana; October 20, 2022; Stone, W. et al., P&E Mining Consultants Inc.

P

PICKLE CROW

High-Grade Inferred Gold Resource Grows to 2.8 Moz at 7.2 g/t [News Release], May 4, 2023; Auteco Minerals Ltd.

PLATREEF

NI-43-101 Technical Report: Platreef 2022 Feasibility Study, Limpopo, South Africa; February 28, 2022; Peters, B. et al., OreWin Pty Ltd.

POINT LEAMINGTON

NI-43-101 Technical Report: Point Leamington Project, Newfoundland, Canada; August 20, 2021; Stone, W. et al., P&E Mining Consultants Inc.

PONY CREEK

NI-43-101 Technical Report: Maiden Mineral Resource Estimate, Pony Creek Property, Elko County, Nevada; February 24, 2022; Dufresne, M.B. et al., APEX Geoscience Ltd.

R

RDM

NI-43-101 Technical Report: Riacho dos Machados Gold Mine, Minas Gerais, Brazil; December 31, 2020; Araújo, F.M. et al., Equinox Gold Corp.

RED RABBIT (TAVSAN)

Significant Increase in Tavsan Resource [News Release]; November 29, 2022; Ariana Resources PLC

Excellent Results From Tavsan Scoping Study [News Release]; November 10, 2016; Ariana Resources plc

RELIEF CANYON

NI-43-101 Technical Report: Feasibility Study for the Relief Canyon Project, Pershing County, Nevada, USA: May 24, 2018; Tietz, P. et al

ROBERTSON (CORTEZ COMPLEX)

Value Today, Growth Tomorrow [Presentation]; September 2023; Barrick Gold Corporation

NI-43-101 Technical Report: Cortez Complex, Nevada, USA; December 31, 2021; Fiddes, C. et al., Nevada Gold Mines LLC

RUDDOCK CREEK

Imperial Metals Corporation Annual Information Form For the fiscal Year Ended December 31, 2012 [AIF]; March 27, 2013; Imperial Metals Corporation

S

SAN FRANCISCO

NI-43-101 Technical Report: Pre-Feasibility Study for the San Francisco Gold Project, Sonora, Mexico: August 28, 2020; Lewis, W. et al.

SANTA ELENA

First Majestic Announces 2022 Mineral Reserve and Mineral Resource Estimates [News Release]; March 31, 2023; First Majestic Silver Corp.

NI-43-101 Technical Report: Santa Elena Silver/Gold Mine, Sonora, Mexico; June 30, 2021; Mendoza Reyes, R. et al., First Majestic Silver Corp.

SOUTH ARTURO

NI-43-101 Technical Report: Preliminary Feasibility Study for the South Arturo Mine, Nevada, USA; December 1, 2020; Odell, D. et al., Practical Mining LLC

SOUTH TALLY

NI-43-101 Technical Report: South Tally Property – Lemarchant Deposit, Newfoundland, Canada; September 20, 2018; Cullen, M. et al., Mercator Geological Services Limited

T

THUNDER CREEK & 144 zONE

NI-43-101 Technical Report: Timmins West Mine, Ontario, Canada; June 30, 2021; Lachappelle, E. et al., Pan American Silver Corp.

Pan American Silver Corp. Annual Information Form for the year ended December 31, 2021 [AIF]; February 23, 2022; Pan American Silver Corp.

TRIANGLE ZONE

NI-43-101 Technical Report: Lamaque Project, Quebec, Canada; December 31, 2021; Simoneau, J. et al., Eldorado Gold Corporation; Murphy, M., Stantec Consulting Ltd.

TROILUS

NI-43-101 Technical Report: Troilus Copper-Gold Project, Quebec, Canada; October 2, 2023; Daigle, P.J., AGP Mining Consultants Inc.

TSACHA (TOMMY VEIN)

NI-43-101 Technical Report: 3Ts Gold Project, British Columbia, Canada; August 18, 2022; Armitage, A. et al, SGS Canada Inc.

TULKS SOUTH

NI-43-101 Technical Report: Tulks South Property, Newfoundland, Canada; August 1, 2007; De Mark, P. et al., Snowden Mining Industry Consultants Inc.

W

WHISTLER

NI-43-101 Technical Report: Whistler Project, Alaska, USA; September 22, 2022; Bird, S. et al., Moose Mountain Technical Services

WOODLAWN

Independent experts confirm large high-grade Resource in line with previous estimates [News Release]; August 2, 2022; Develop Global Limited

Y

YUSUFELI

NI-43-101 Technical Report: Preliminary Economic Assessment on the Tac and Corak Deposits, Yusufeli Property, Artvin Province, Türkiye; June 14, 2011; Barnett, W. et al., SRK Consulting (Canada) Inc.